Presented as part of the 11th meeting of the international organization, “Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA)” in Berkeley, California, June 2–6, 2002. The essential role of zinc in growth. 2017; 121(38): 9024, Comparative Clinical Pathology. Atwater Memorial Lecture and the 2001 ASNS President's Lecture: Human nutrient requirements: the challenge of the post-genome era, Maneuvering in the complex path from genotype to phenotype, Life's irreducible structure. The essential trace elements, such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Co, if deficient, are compensated, whereas other trace elements, for example Hg, Cr, Mo, etc., may react as true therapeutic agents. Adv Exp Med Biol 1974;48:1-29. What are trace elements? New York: Freeman and Company; 1999. p. 156-9. These trace elements have clinical significance and these can be estimated using different analytical method. Little is known about the regulation and function of most genes and/or how they relate to the trace element function and requirements. To further emphasize: a) the activity of the DNA binding domain of the retinoic acid receptor (containing two zinc fingers) is diminished in a pro-oxidant environment with release of zinc from the zinc-finger motif (32). neutons, protons, electrons. A conspectus of research on copper metabolism and requirements of man. An abnormal trace element in biology. b) There is a zinc “sensing” receptor involved in intracellular calcium mobilization and signaling (33, 34), and c) mobilization of calcium induces nitric oxide, which releases zinc from metallothionein (35). The action of Zirconium (Zr) on biological systems presents an enigma. Neto JB. Quantity elements - Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Cl. The most popular abbreviation for Journal Of Trace Elements In Medicine And Biology is: JTEMB Tan JA, Hou SF, Zhu WY, Li RB, Zheng DX, Wang MY. J Toxicol Environ Health 1988;24:193-200. It is ubiquitous, being present in nature in amounts higher than most trace elements. To fully and effectively exploit this technology we need: i) a goal (criterion of trace element adequacy), ii) information about intakes of individuals, iii) information about individuals' requirements, iv) information about factors that affect requirements, v) information about individuals' nutritional status, vi) dietary characteristics (foods, sources, meals), as well as an understanding of the social, cultural, economic and political determinants of well-being. The foregoing leads us now briefly to the second entry on the list in Table 1, namely the determination of the requirements for trace elements by humans at different stages of life and under various physiological, dietary and environmental conditions. Essential trace elements: Boron, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. Biol Trace Elem Res 1990;26-27:599-611. In essence, it seems to me that for the field to move forward we need to be less insular as investigators and even more creative as mentors. 2020; 61(3): 496, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. They have no known function in the human body. Nielsen FH. Watson TD. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18:321-36. In short, the development and evolution of metabolic profiling technologies, including mass spectrometry (52) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (53), coupled with advances in high throughput analytical and computing technologies, will revolutionize our ability to discover how trace-element nutrients determine the level and activity of specific gene products and affect genetic pathways. Some challenging areas of application for the newer knowledge of trace element biology and desirable areas of research. Possible metabolite sensor signatures of trace element function/status. Barceloux DG. It follows then that it is essential to study these networks, including metabolic control and metabolites, if we are to achieve new insights into trace-element dependent function/status/disease in people. These have major ramifications for the way by which we might widen and improve approaches for assessment of trace element nutritional status and needs, especially in humans. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. A recent article by Strohman (42) is instructive in this context. 2016; Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Arts and Humanities. Critchfield JW, Keen CL. Shamberger RJ, Rukovena E, Longfield AK, Tytko SA, Deodhar S, Willis CE. In fact, over short periods of so-called “nutritional” time, such as a day or a week, it is presumably the state of these metabolic and dynamic networks that play a dominant role in the regulation and the functioning of cells and organs; genes might be considered responsible for more long-term changes in phenotype, in this context. Essential trace elements - Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se, I. Adv Chem 1970;94:123-60. A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease The elements belonging to this group are cadmium, nickel, silica, tin, vanadium, and aluminum. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. The entry into animal systems in vivo is related to the mode o … Environmental Science and Pollution Research. One might speculate, however, that one reason for the invitation is that even for one who has been interested primarily in amino acid and protein metabolism, a link with trace elements can be identified even as far back as the beginning of life itself; thus, about 4 billion years ago, according to one general theory based on a hydrothermal origin of life on Earth, autotrophic metabolism of low molecular weight constituents, including amino acids and peptides, emerged in a pressurized iron-sulfur world or an environment of iron-sulfide and hot magmatic exhalations (7) for which there is growing supportive evidence (8). These studies are generally considered routine, easy and lacking in creativity. Anand T, Rahi M, Sharma P, Ingle GK. Additionally, in terms of deficiencies we need to ask, for example, which of the multiple functions of zinc (e.g., 25) and/or mechanisms that account for the essentiality of zinc in the animal organism are more or less vulnerable to a change in the availability of this element. ii) What does zinc or other trace metal balance mean functionally? 2017; International Journal of Cosmetic Science. All of this is related to our common goal to promote, through expanded biological knowledge and its effective application, the enhanced role of trace elements for human well-being. 2020; International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Gustavsson P, Jakobsson R, Johansson H, Lewin F, Norell S, Rutkvist LE. VII. Fluoride: Benefits and risks of exposure. 2017; The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. Todd WR, Elvehjem CA, Hart EB. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:2076-85. 5th ed. Apart from a lack of information and difficulty in conducting human studies, a reason for this problem is that there has not been a concerted major research commitment to establish requirements for nutrients in initially healthy humans. A multidisciplinary approach will also require a collaborative spirit as a part of the process needed to solve practical trace-element nutritional problems. They display control distributed over all enzymes of a network, and their phenotype includes cellular redox potential. This can be measured in a suitable biological sample, by means of such techniques as ELISA or mass spectrometry, at specified times after administration of the sensor (or metaprobe). There is a necessity for all participating parties, teachers, scientists, students and supporters, to understand and embrace the overall objectives of TEMA and to mobilize the necessary intellect and physical and financial resources. Nutr Res 1995;15:335-58. Frieden E. The chemical elements of life. Referencing books, youtube videos, websites, articles, journals, podcasts, images, videos, or music in Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. With this new knowledge a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for and extent of variation in requirements among otherwise apparently similar individuals would emerge. The sensor contains a release tag, which upon the action of an enzyme in a metabolic pathway liberates the release tag. Sci Am 1972;227:52-60. Thus, it is either now possible or with some further development it should be possible to: a) probe components of the metabolome with specific trace element dependent functions related to immune defense, apoptosis and energy transformation; b) compliment molecular, organelle and other reductionist approaches with essentially reconstructive paradigms; and c) provide information about trace-element needs, function and toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res 1980;2:91-107. The deficiency of such elements usually proves fatal unless intervened properly. J Chem Educ 1985;62:917-23. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:2181-6. Halsted JA, Smith JC Jr, Irwin MI. Essential trace elements are needed for many physiological and biochemical processes in both plants and animals. J Nutr 1998;128 12 Suppl:2783S-9. Nutr Rev 1980;38:151-4. Iodine. Although these elements account for only 0.02% of the total body weight, they play signi・…ant roles, e.g., as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive substances. Frieden E. New perspectives on the essential trace elements. 2020; : 116094, Russian Chemical Bulletin. Strohman (42) illustrates his argument by listing the various biological levels at which regulation occurs (Table 3) and as the title to the introduction to the series of papers that included Strohman's (42) paper indicated, “It's not just the genes.” To paraphrase Strohman (40), it can be concluded from this perspective that nutritional (trace element) disease phenotypes are controlled not only by genes but also by lawful self-arranging networks that display system-wide dynamics. Copper homeostasis: The role of cellular transporters. Wada O. 2018; 8(20): 181202, Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. Aoba T, Fejerskov O. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1990;1:261-81. There is much room for creative integrative thinking. 2020; 69(7): 1394, International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. This might be extremely difficult to achieve in any comprehensive way, but I don't see a major alternative or otherwise simple way forward. 2017; Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Levels of regulation • loci of control constraints • above the genome1. Washington, D.C: National Academy of Sciences; 1974. p. 22-5. Tuormaa TE. Hart EB, Steenbock H, Waddell J, Elvehjem CA. Furthermore, it might also be time for those of us interested in this area to step back for a while and abandon immediate attempts to refine, for example, current values for the mean requirements in healthy adults for copper and molybdenum, which are 700 and 34 mg/d, respectively (37). Academy of Sciences ; 1974. p. 22-5 an adult human is above 100 mg/day Static Field., Nanotechnologies in Russia, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se, I,!, dark respiration and metabolomic analysis of Halodule pinifolia reveal potential heat responsive metabolites biochemical. 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